Temple of the Sun
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One of the secrets of The Cloisters ?
ancient city, like all ancient military camp (the Roman Castrum), as any building,
mainly religious, was born of a ritual orientation to determine the perimeter
and the four main directions (north-on: the cardo and east-west: decumanus).
same was true, we believe, for The Cloisters.
The inauguration of the Cloisters takes place May 10, 1938, a few days after the sudden death of the sculptor George Grey Barnard and art collector (1863-1938) who had bought and transported of the sculptures of five medieval French cloisters in New York.
The acquisition, in 1913, of the sculptures of the cloister of St. Michel de Cuxa (Roussillon in France) marks the beginning of a long adventure. He is at the origin of the creation of the first museum of the Cloisters, in 1914. Until 1922, Grey Barnard buys, transports and reconstructs the cloisters of Saint-Guilhem-le-Desert (Languedoc), Bonnefont-en-Comminges (Midi-Pyrenees), Trie-en-Bigorre (Pyrenees) and Froville (Lorraine).
All the collections of this medieval art love feeds the heteroclite museum installed on Fort Washington Avenue.
In 1925, the Metropolitan Museum buys the essentials of this collection, thanks to the patronage of John D. Rockefeller Jr., and undertakes to build a new museum, the one that still dominates Fort Tryon Park, near the banks of the Hudson.
Art objects in the collection come to join the Rockefeller sculptures collected by Grey Barnard. The collections continue to grow. The corporate philanthropy of John D. Rockefeller Jr. helped to create funds to purchase other art works to join the medieval collection of the Metropolitan Museum and those of the Cloisters Museum.
Subsequent donations and legacies, from wealthy patrons, also helped to further enrich a collection that already belonged to the most prestigious in the world.
On May 12, 1938, The Cloisters Museum is open to the public.
Every year, on May 12th, the rays of the sunset pass through a window of a tower to the west, overlooking the Hudson River. On the other side, there is no construction that disturbs their way.
These rays of the sunset crosses the hall, the reception hall and goes under the door of an old French chapel. The rays of the 'dying' sun go to the East, place of the resurrection.
Collection Gift of John D. Rockefeller Jr. - 1935
It was under this porch that Jacques de Molay (1243-1314) has passed before pronouncing his vows of entry into the Order of the Templars (founded in 1119 by Hugues de Pyns and Godfrey of Saint -Love) which he will one day be nominated the Master (circa 1293 or 1298). He was received in the order in 1265 in the Commandery of Beaune by Humbert of Pairaud, who served as Visitor of France and England.
This gateway is now in The Cloisters. Until recently, visitors to the Cloisters passed beneath this porch, just like Jacques de Molay, as for an initiation, unknowingly.
What insight into the selection of Mr. Rockefeller ! I think there would be a book to write about the "secrets" of the Cloisters ...
On May 12, 1310: Four Knights of the Order of the Temple are burned at the stake after their confessions extracted under torture in 1307.
In astrology, May 12 is the 22nd day of the astrological sign of Taurus.
Winter solstice day
is the phenomenon the most " impressive " that our ancestors have had
to face ?
Death, the death of their contemporaries, the death of vegetation in winter. And "death" of the sun every evening and every winter solstice ... ? So we can understand why the solar cult was so important, in conjunction with that of the Great Mother.
How this relates to The Cloisters ?
Howard Comeau saw it with his eyes: on 20 and 21 December, winter solstice days, the setting sun, seen from the west upper terrace of Cloisters, "goes down" just under the arch of the George Washington Bridge crossing "the Hudson River" to connect Manhattan and Fort Lee, in New Jersey.
(photo taken from the upper terrace west of Cloisters)
This phenomenon takes place majestically in the symbolic Masonic and honors George Washington, the most influential and the most important of Freemasons of the USA.
25 December, the day supposed to be
that of Jesus' birth, the sun, beginning to "raise" its race, appears
under the arch of the bridge a little above.
The construction of the Washington Bridge (from 1927 to 1931) precedes that of the Cloisters (from 1934 to 1938). Is this vision of the setting sun under the ark due to chance or calculated?
Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret) wrote these words on the metallic structure :
" The George Washington Bridge over the Hudson is the most beautiful bridge in the world. Made of cables and steel beams, it gleams in the sky like a reversed arch. It is blessed. It is the only seat of grace in the disordered city. It is painted an aluminum color and, between water and sky, you see nothing but the bent cord supported by two steel towers. When your car moves up the ramp the two towers rise so high that it brings you happiness; their structure is so pure, so resolute, so regular that here, finally, steel architecture seems to laugh. The car reaches an unexpectedly wide apron; the second tower is very far away; innumerable vertical cables, gleaming against the sky, are suspended from the magisterial curve which swings down and then up. The rose-colored towers of New York appear, a vision whose harshness is mitigated by distance."
In front of The Cloisters, on the other bank of the Hudson, 700 hectares of land were bought by Mr. Rockefeller. Non-buildable !
For the "drama of Mithra" (its death and rebirth after three days) is visible throughout the year to the ages of the century !
For the panorama seen from The Cloisters can forever allow to observe, in the only place in the natural horizon of New York, the sunsets throughout the year.
We can observe from The Cloisters the two solstices in the natural setting anterior of the urban development.
And all artworks in The Cloisters are linked to this bright project "Solar".
We can see in this statue the god Tammuz, a golden statue suspended between Heaven and Earth in the Temple of Tyr and that we find as an echo in this Christ hanging in the Roman hall of The Cloisters.
statue of Melqart from Gades (Cadiz)
It is the Sun which is the key to this face to face between an ancient solar god (Tammuz -Christ) and the winter solstice.
Two temples : one in the Roman style in The Cloisters ; the other in Gothic style, the arch of the bridge over the Hudson. The arch is a Roman " window " in a front view and a Gothic " window " in an oblique view.
The sun is represented by a halo or crown of thorns ; the outstretched horizontally
arms simulate the solar rays.
The Cloisters, there is no representation of the Resurrection or the Ascension
of Christ ! Why ?
the "rebirth" (new birth) is not a resurrection ?
John nor Matthew mentions the Ascension of Jesus. This "ascension" has
therefore no solid scriptural basis.
two paintings of the Master of the Codex of Saint George (13th century)
have gathered here ?
They are both linked to the winter solstice : The Crucifixion represents the "death" of the sun ; Christ wears a halo, which designates him as the Sun.
Entombment evokes not the resurrection, but the rebirth of the sun : the tomb
is at the foot of the Cross, which is not "complete" to the Gospels
or the usual iconography.
four Christian holy days called cardinal (Christmas, Easter, St. John
The autumnal equinox, September 21,
by the Archangel Mikhael.
MITHRA, DUMUZI, TAMMUZ and LITHA
the reforms of pagan religions, particularly the one devoted to Mithras, the Roman
Emperor Constantine (newly converted to Christianity after his vision of 28 October
of the year 312) instituted the Sunday as a feast day throughout the Roman Empire.
the feast of Mithra fixed at the winter solstice, December 25, became the feast
The Rock and the Sun
Thus were brought together several cloisters, nearly 5,000 sculptures, tapestries, illuminated manuscripts, paintings, stained glass and many other medieval wonders.
Read on the following website, the odyssey of the cloisters of Saint-Guilhem-le-Desert and Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa :
statue to John Alluye - 13th century
with Howard, the times before the construction of The Cloisters bridge and The
Washington Bridge... Men and women meet regularly at this point still untouched,
on the rock outcropping.
and the zodiac. Phoenicia. (late fourth century)
is dressed in Persian clothing and carries the Phrygian cap.
Mithraic temples were found in Italy (17 in Ostia Antica, the port of Rome), Germany, Switzerland, Slovenia, England (3 near Hadrian's Wall)
The mythological story of Mithras made him born from a rock (the petra Generatrix), near a spring and under a tree, both sacred. At his birth, he was wearing the Phrygian cap, a torch and a knife. Then, in the mountains, he met the primordial bull that he conquered, he tied by its hind legs and put it on his shoulders. This journey of Mithras with the bull on his shoulders is called " transitus ". On his arrival in a cave, a crow sent by the Sun told him he had to make a sacrifice : Mithras killed the bull by piercing its side. Wheat came out of the spine and his blood became wine. Its seed, collected by the Moon, produced useful animals to humans.
This bronze statue found near a Mithraeum near Hadrian's Wall shows Mithras emerging from a zodiac ring-shaped egg.
An inscription found in Rome suggests that Mithras could be identify with the primordial god of Orphism, Phanes, emerged from the cosmic egg at the beginning of time, causing the universe.
Cautès et Cautopatès, two companions torchbearers of Mithras, could represent respectively the sunrise and sunset.
December 25 (or the winter solstice), the birth of Mithras was commemorated. The
16th of each month was also sacred. The adepts of Mithra also praised Sunday,
day of the Sun.
(right) associated with
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In the religion of Mithras, there is a strange god of the time : Aion Kronos, also known as deus leontocephalos because it is represented in human form with lion's head, enlaced by a snake whose head reappears from behind on his head.
It holds a key in each hand, lightning rests on its chest, on its back are the four wings of the winds ; somewhat analogous to the signs of the zodiac covers the body. Its attributes are a cock and tools.
The name already indicates that it is a symbol of the time composed of many images of libido. The lion, zodion [ Zodiac is a word derived from Greek Zôdion, small animal ] of the greatest warmth of summer, is the symbol of "concupiscentia effrenata", the most unbridled desire.
In the mystery of Mithras, the snake is often represented opposed to the lion, according to the universal myth of the battle between the sun and the dragon.
The embrace is "engulfment", entering the body of the mother. Time is also defined by sunrise and sunset, that is to say, by death and renewal of libido, arousal and loss of consciousness. The addition of the cock shows again the time, and that of the creative action of the time. "
(according to C. G. Jung, Metamorphoses of the Soul and its symbols)
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The meaning of maternal water is one of the clearest symbolic interpretations of mythology. The sea is the symbol of birth. Life comes from water.
The two gods that interest us most here also
come from water :
The "source" also occurs in Mithraism :
In Persia, Ardviçûra is the source containing the water of life. Ardviçûra-Anahita is a goddess of water and love
Aphrodite is "one that was born from the foam"
In the Vedas, the waters are called mâtritamâh : the mothers
"Everything that lives, rises like the sun, out of the water, plunges back there again in the evening. Born out of springs, rivers and seas, dying man reached the river Styx to undertake " night crossing. " The black waters of death are waters of life ; death with its cold embrace is the womb, as the sea swallows the sun, but revived it out of its mother's womb. Life knows no death.
The projection of the maternal imago on the water gives it a series of magical or divine qualities, as they are specific to the mother. The symbol of the baptismal water of the Church is one example. In dreams or fantasies, sea or all areas of water large enough, means the unconscious.
The maternal aspect of water coincides with the nature of the unconscious in the sense that the latter (especially in men) may be regarded as the mother, the matrix of consciousness. So when we interpret on the plane of subject, the unconscious has, like water, a maternal meaning. "
(according to C. G. Jung, Metamorphoses of the Soul and its symbols)
At the bottom of The Cloisters, the Hudson River flows ...
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Roman calendar: http://grammatici.narod.ru/kalendae/jan26.htm
mysteries of Mithra by Franz Cumont :
the pope, the bull and the sun...
Alexander VI Borgia - 16e century
Rodrigo Llançol was born on 1 January 1431 in the town of Xàtiva
in the Kingdom of Valencia, one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon,
in present-day Spain.
He was pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503 with the name of Alexander VI.
Why the choice of this name "Alexander" ?
The first was
named Pope Alexander I, the sixth bishop of Rome, from 107 to 116.
The name of Alexander refers to Antiquity :
The Greek king of Macedon, Alexander III of Macedon (Born in Pella in - 356, died in Babylon in - 323) commonly known as Alexander the Great
Alexander was proclaimed pharaoh at Memphis in 331. He sacrifices the bull Apis a guarantee of respect for Egyptian traditions and honors the other gods. Then he went to the Mediterranean coast where he chose the site of the future Alexandria, finally completed under Ptolemy I or Ptolemy II.
Legend says that Alexander had himself chosen the plans of the new city. Then he went into the oasis of Siwa, where he met the oracle of Ammon-Zeus who confirming him as a direct descendant of the god Amun.
The port of Alexandria in Egypt and about seventy cities which he founded, the majority of which bears the name of Alexandria.
The emblem of the Borgia family is a bull.
There are six halls : the Hall of the Sibyls (mythological figures highly valued by Alexander VI), the Hall of the Credo, the Salle of the Arts, the Hall of the Saints, the Hall of Mysteries of the Faith and the Hall of the Popes.
In the figures of the frescoes, it may be possible to discover the portraits of some family members, as Emperor Caesar or Lucrezia in Saint Catherine of Alexandria.
After his election, Alexander VI offered bull fights to the population.
Coat of arms of the
Borgia family :
Hermes Trismegistus is represented twice
- 1- Isis with Hermes, Trismegiste and Moïse
2- Hermes Trismegiste and the Zodiac
Legend of Isis seeking the fourteen pieces of the body of Osiris
pyramid is central in the tapestry 2
And a bull genuflects before the Cross. So, co-exist the great religion of ancient Egypt and Christianity : Alexander VI himself adoring Christ and attending His resurrection and the "family and personal" bull adoring the Cross. For Egyptians, the soul of Osiris had entered the Apis bull or the ram of Mendes.
bulls adoring the cross - detail of the cornice of the hall of saints
This is the bull of Alexander VI kneeling before the cross. This carved representation is very important. It has two meanings:
a) Pope Alexander VI adoring the crucified Christ affirms the primacy of the Christian religion
b) but in reference to Egyptian beliefs, it seems to mean that the old religions are not wrong but they have paved the way for Christianity, sensible to the thought of Pico della Mirandola who argued that "all truth is one". The syncretism of knowledge (astrology, Scholastic, cabal, chiromancy, etc ...) specific to the humanist philosophy seeks to cover all disciplines and all knowledge. For the time, the thoughts of Ficino, Erasmus or Pico della Mirandola, by implementing their own freedom of thought, renewed knowledge by the association and the confrontation of different kinds of knowledge and the alleged truths.
The Hunt of the Unicorn does she illustrate the replacement of old pagan religions by Christianity ? The tapestry does she glorify the victory of Christianity ?
In the tapestry 2, the unicorn is represented kneeling,
Pinturicchio painted also in castle of St Angelo, directly controlled by the Pope, a cycle on the Pope's victory over Charles VIII of France. The frescoes were destroyed in September 1628, during the work ordered by Pope Urban VIII Barberini. There are only descriptions as those of the German Johann Fichard, visiting Rome in 1536.
Alexander VI was a man of action but also a philanthropist ; he has surrounded himself with philosophers ; he protected them (as John Pico della Mirandola) probably for purposes of propaganda and he rewarded them with offices and honors in the papal curia, in the University or in the Roman Academy founded by Julius Pomponius Leto, a great philologist and passionate of classical Rome. Alexander VI also showed a keen interest in archaeological researches that he financed in Rome.
the following website : go to "CONTENUS", choose "Principaux musées"
and "Borgia Apartments"
next chapter "The Solar Gods" is taken from the site :
The representation of the Virgin and child God has remained the same since Babylon, only the names change : Semiramis / Tammuz, Isis / Horus, Mary / Jesus.
symbol of the Cross is systematic, it marks the four seasons of the solar cycle.
Mithra "Son of God" was crucified, Virishna
"Son of God" was crucified, Horus
"Son of God" was depicted lying on a cross, Adonis
"son of God" was crucified, Quetzalcoatl and
Krishna are also shown
nailed to a cross. Death of the Gods saviors to redeem our sins is a common factor,
and they resurrect the dead at Easter, the day when the sun is closest to Earth.
If, symbolically, we recognize together that the sun itself is crucified on the cross of the four seasons of eternity, we could perhaps do without some dissimulations and have, in conscience, the key to almost all solar mythical figures called "Son of God." We would then simply locate the house where the sun is astrologically to decode the symbolism of the era in question of any terrestrial tradition or religious. "
Gilbert Durand, in The anthropological structures of the imaginary (Boombana Publications, 1999) writes ( pp. 378-381 in French book) :
" Eliade (Treaty of History of religions, Payot, 1949, p. 253-254) seems to be right when he connects the vegetation myths to the legends on the cross. This connection is still practiced in a too rational way through the plants that resurrect the deaths in Indian, Iranian or Chinese traditions.
Indeed, if these virtues are attributed by the Christian folklore to the wood of the cross, as does for example the legend of St. Helena, we believe that this sense is secondary. The Christian cross, erected as wood, as an artificial tree, drains only the symbolic meanings inherent in any vegetal symbolism.
In fact, the cross is often identified with a tree, by the iconography and the legend ; it consequently becomes ascension ladder, because the tree is contaminated by the archetypes of ascension.
the legend of the cross, the symbolism of the drink of eternity, the fruit of
the tree or the rose blooming on dead wood, also is grafted.
But mainly through all these symbols, it should be noted that the cross is a symbol of spatial aggregation, as Guénon has shown in a book (The Symbolism of the Cross, Vega, 1950).
symbol of the cross is a union of opposites, a sign of aggregation of the gunas
which should be compared to the Hindu tradition, and Kua (the union of
Yin and Yang) of the Chinese tradition such as the Pythagorean tetraktys.
Much better, Mexican mythology gives us all the symbolic palette that comes gather under the sign of the cross : that is Xiuhtecutli, the fire god who sits on the "home" of the Universe.
Place of the synthesis, the center presents an ambiguous face : a negative aspect and a favorable aspect. At last, in the Codex Borgia, the center is represented by a multicolored tree whose vertical ambiguity is clear ; it is topped with a quetzal, bird of the East, and springs from the body of an earth goddess, symbol of the West.
More, this cosmic tree is accompanied, on one side by the Great God Quetzalcoatl, the god who sacrificed himself on a pyre to give life to the sun and to Venus, on the other side by Macuilxochitl, god of the dawn, of spring, but also of games, music, dance, love.
will examine the technological and finally sexual roots of this almost semiological
archetype of the union of opposites, and thereby we see how the
connection of the fire, the sexuality and the wooden cross form a perfectly
coherent constellation whose the sign of the cross is the overdetermined emblem.
Thereby we discover the pattern of rhythmic movement and the sexual act that underlies
and orders subjectively any dream and any meditation on the cycle.
Page 389, Gilbert Durand writes : " This gigantic mythical constellation that connects the fire, the cross, the friction and the gyration, the sexuality and the music seems to be summed up in a note of Marcel Granet, on a ritual object found in searches of Lo-Lang in Japan. This object consists of a circular plate of hardwood arranged at a square board of soft wood. "
Some anothers elements about The Cloisters
Well look at the left edge of the fresco : it is a zigzag line that recalls the "tracing board" and that we find framing images Masonic containing all the Masonic symbols of the "chamber of reflection" or "Cabinet of reflection".
In France, this border appears as the "lake of love" in rope :
The other fresco, known as "Dragon passant", is near that of the Lion.
Here are joined side by side in the same hall the first Mercury and Sulphur, beginning of any "operation" of alchemy.
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